The uniqueness of the volcanic landscape and the diversity of the geological features of Timanfaya were the reasons for its statement as a national park. The absence of a mantle of vegetation, the extreme roughness of the forms and the variety of the existing colours (red, brown, beige, black and orange), next to the silhouette of the volcanoes and the abrupt coast, all these features give the park an extraordinary beauty.

The landscape of the National Park of Timanfaya was created during a specific and well known period, between 1730 and 1736, which finished with the eruption of Chinero and Volcán Nuevo del Fuego in 1824. The atmospheric phenomena have not yet altered the landscape. Therefore, we are able to contemplate the initial stages of its evolution.

The mineral element stands out over any of the manifestations of biological nature. The lava fields acquire a different appearance depending on its viscosity, combining rough and abrupt terrains, known as malpaíses (badlands), with others on which would not be difficult travel, frequently with a rope shaped form (Pahoehoe).

In these recent volcanic materials, the main sign of life resides in the lichens. They have already begun to alter the rocks and to create the conditions for more advanced and demanding organisms, which will come later. The lichens, which have a wide variety, are responsible for creating multiple samples of colour in the landscape.

The materials expelled by the volcanoes (ash, lapilli, tephra and volcanic bombs) occupy a large part of the terrain. The lapilli creates fields of tiny stones known as rofe or picón, and has allowed the existence of certain testimonies of humanization in the landscape, as well as an interesting adaptation to the environment shown in the cultivation of fruit crops in zocos de piedra (small walls made of volcanic stone), in order to protect them from the wind and take advantage of the ability of these volcanic terrains to retain moisture.

The volcanoes are the most representative features of the geography of the park. They are mainly distributed through its Southern sector and the majority of them are of low height, corresponding to recent eruptions. The islets correspond to previous eruptions and their floors are a bit more evolved. Since they are high areas, they were not covered by the flows of the historic eruptions, as it was the case of the islets of El Mojón, Halcones, Montaña de Termesana, Montaña Bermeja and part of the islet of Hilario.

The presence of the coastline is one of the elements that distinguish Timanfaya from the rest of the National Parks of the Canary Islands. All the Western boundary of the park is constituted by a coastline in a very good state of preservation and with no human alterations. This part of the coast is composed of small cliffs formed by the lava flows of the historical volcanism, occasionally sprinkled with small black sand beaches. These were formed by the action of the sea, which dismantles the rocky escarpments.