The national park, a paradise for any lover of botany, hosts one of the best examples of Monteverde in the Macaronesia (Canary Islands, Madeira, the Azores and Cape Verde and a sector of the African coast). The Monteverde encompasses the laurel and the fayal-brezal, a drier and poorer forest in tree species. The laurel forest of the Macaronesia is a "living fossil" that has its origin in the ancient flora that existed in the Mediterranean region during the Tertiary, and that the climate changes related to glaciation have led to the disappearance of almost all of its area of distribution.
The key protagonists of the jungle that occupy the park are the trees. Trees that are the support of the laurel forest, formed by about 20 tree species, some of which are very abundant and other tremendously rare. As its name indicates, the laurisilva is a forest (silva) of laurels.
However, unlike a pine forest, where the pine predominates overwhelmingly, in the laurisilva forest there are, not only laurels, but also many trees that inhabit there and are similar to the laurel: giants with leaves, usually dark green, smooth and perennial. Laurels (Laurus novocanariensis), viñátigos (Persea indica), tiles (Ocotea foetens), acebiños (Ilex canariensis), palos blancos (Picconia excelsa) or follaos (Viburnum rigidum) are some of the inhabitants of the wettest part of the mountain.
Hayas (Morella faya) and brezos (Erica arborea) are the main components of the fayal-brezal, a forest ecosystem which is drier and poorer in species, but not of less beauty and conservation value.
Other tree species are less abundant but equally important: the barbusano (Apollonias barbujana), the mocán (Visnea mocanera), the sanguino (Rhamnus glandulosa), the aderno (Heberdenia excelsa), the bojo (Ilex perado ssp.platyphylla) or the Sauce (Salix canariensis).
Much more rare and scarce are the peralillo (Gymnosporia casinoides), the cedro (Juniperus cedrus), the sángano (Prunus lusitanica ssp.hixa) the tabaiba monte (Euphorbia mellifera) or the saúco (Sambucus nigra ssp.palmensis).
Of course, we must not forget that Garajonay is an important refuge for the canary flora, with more than 700 plant species, of which about half are lichens, and more than 1000 species of fungi. Without all of them, the puzzle would not be complete. Ferns, herbaceous plants, shrubs, mosses, lichens, fungi... A plant kingdom with 2,000 species living in the 3,984 hectares of the National Park!